Scute (Scutellaria Baicalensis) is one of the core ingredients of FlameEz?. It is also one of the most respected and utilized herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Scute was used safely for centuries in traditional medicine to treat allergies, infections, inflammation, cancer, and headaches. Its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties have been utilized in contemporary medicine. Recent research also reveals that Scute has anti-cancer and anti-allergy effects and benefits for treating diabetes and high blood pressure.
The root of Scute is a rich source of over 35 flavonoids. The main active ingredients modulating inflammation include baicalein, baicalin, and wogonin. They are potent free radical scavengers and xanthine oxidase inhibitors.
Scute has been the subject of intensive study. Based on published scientific and clinical research, Scute:
Inhibits proinflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2, leukotriene B4, IL-1 beta, 12-lipoxygenase and prostaglandin E2*
Reduces production of nitric oxide and free radicals*
Reduces cancer cell growth and induces apoptosis of cancer cells*
Protects DNA from undergoing cancerous mutations*
Stimulates recombination and repair of damaged DNA*
Has antiviral/anti-HIV effects*
Inhibits type I and II hyper-sensitivity reactions in asthma and allergies*
Prevents the buildup of amyloid beta peptides in the brain and protects nerve cells from damage*
Relieves stomach damage and nausea caused by anti-cancer drugs and antiviral drugs used to treat AIDS*
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
Han J. et al. Characterization of flavonoids in the traditional Chinese herbal medicine-Huangqin by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical & Life Sciences. 848(2):355-62, 2007
Leung HW. et al. Inhibition of 12-lipoxygenase during baicalein-induced human lung nonsmall carcinoma H460 cell apoptosis. Food & Chemical Toxicology. 45(3):403-11, 2007
Huang WH.et al. Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of polyhydroxyflavonoids of Scutellaria baicalensis GEORGI. Bioscience, Biotechnology & Biochemistry. 70(10):2371-80, 2006
Zhang Y. et al. Protective effect of flavonoids from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi on cerebral ischemia injury. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 108(3):355-60, 2006
Zhao Y. et al. Effects of flavonoids extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi on hemin-nitrite-H2O2 induced liver injury. European Journal of Pharmacology. 536(1-2):192-9, 2006
Wang JY. et al. Effects of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi on macrophage-hepatocyte interaction through cytokines related to growth control of murine hepatocytes. Experimental Biology & Medicine. 231(4):444-55, 2006
Woo KJ. et al. Differential inhibitory effects of baicalein and baicalin on LPS-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression through inhibition of C/EBPbeta DNA-binding activity. Immunobiology. 211(5):359-68, 2006
Cho J. Lee HK. Wogonin inhibits ischemic brain injury in a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 27(10):1561-4, 2004
Huang Y. et al. Biological properties of baicalein in cardiovascular system. Current Drug Targets – Cardiovascular & Haematological Disorders. 5(2):177-84, 2005
Tang W. et al. Flavonoids from Radix Scutellariae as potential stroke therapeutic agents by targeting the second postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95)/disc large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) domain of PSD-95. Phytomedicine. 11(4):277-84, 2004.
Heo HJ. et al. Potent Inhibitory effect of flavonoids in Scutellaria baicalensis on amyloid beta protein-induced neurotoxicity. Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry. 52(13):4128-32, 2004
Zhang DY. et al. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by Scutellaria baicalensis. Cancer Research. 63(14):4037-43, 2003
Chi YS. et al. Effects of wogonin, a plant flavone from Scutellaria radix, on skin inflammation: in vivo regulation of inflammation-associated gene expression. Biochemical Pharmacology. 66(7):1271-8, 2003
Kang BY. et al. Involvement of nuclear factor-kappaB in the inhibition of interleukin-12 production from mouse macrophages by baicalein, a flavonoid in Scutellaria baicalensis. Planta Medica. 69(8):687-91, 2003
Ye F. et al. Anticancer activity of Scutellaria baicalensis and its potential mechanism. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine. 8(5):567-72, 2002
Lycium is one of the main ingredients in FlameEz-Kidney and FlameEz-Glucose. Lycium has been considered to be a major anti-aging herb for over 2,500 years. This delicious fruit is very widely used as an excellent Yin Jing and blood tonic. According to Chinese pharmacopoeia, Lycium nourishes the liver and kidneys, improves vision, strengthens nonspecific immunity, prevents fatty liver, and reduces blood sugar. It has long been a favorite herb of Chinese athletes.
The Lycium fruit contains immunologically active polysaccharides (5-8%). The same polysaccharides also stimulate the secretion in the pituitary gland of human growth hormone, a powerful innate anti-aging hormone. Lycium is also very rich in vitamins and carotenoids. Being rich in trace minerals, Lycium contains significant amounts of zinc, calcium, germanium, selenium, and phosphorus, plus small quantities of many other minerals. The fruit also contains beta-sitosterol (an anti-inflammatory agent), linoleic acid (a fatty acid), sesquiterpenoids (cyperone and solavetivone), tetraterpenoids (zeaxanthin and physalin), and betaine. Lycium contains 18 kinds of amino acids, of which 8 (including isoleucine and tryptophan) are indispensable amino acids for the human body.
Based on scientific and clinical research, Lycium:
Reduces beta-amyloid neurotoxicity;*
Promotes neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects;*
Reduces stress on endoplasmic reticulum and prevents cell aging;*
Improves insulin sensitivity and lowers blood glucose;*
Reduces lipid peroxidation and DNA damage;*
Inhibits proliferation of cancer cells and promotes malignant cell apoptosis;*
Improves maturation and activity of immune cells.*
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
Reference (for abstracts and additional references, click here):
Xin YF. et al. Protective effect of Lycium barbarum on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Phytotherapy Research. 21(11):1020-4, 2007
Ho YS. et al. Characterizing the neuroprotective effects of alkaline extract of Lycium barbarum on beta-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity. Brain Research. 1158:123-34, 2007
Chan HC. et al. Neuroprotective effects of Lycium barbarum Lynn on protecting retinal ganglion cells in an ocular hypertension model of glaucoma. Experimental Neurology. 203(1):269-73, 2007
Li XM. Protective effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress in rats. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 40(5):461-5, 2007
Li XM. et al. Effect of the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on age-related oxidative stress in aged mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 111(3):504-11, 2007
Zhu J. et al. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides regulate phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells. Cell Biology International. 31(6):615-9, 2007
Yu MS. et al. Characterization of the effects of anti-aging medicine Fructus lycii on beta-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity. International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 20(2):261-8, 2007
Wu H. et al. Effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide on the improvement of antioxidant ability and DNA damage in NIDDM rats. Yakugaku Zasshi – Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. 126(5):365-71, 2006
Yu MS. et al. Cytoprotective effects of Lycium barbarum against reducing stress on endoplasmic reticulum. International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 17(6):1157-61, 2006
Chao JC. et al. Hot water-extracted Lycium barbarum and Rehmannia glutinosa inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 12(28):4478-84, 2006
Zhao R. et al. Effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide on the improvement of insulin resistance in NIDDM rats. Yakugaku Zasshi – Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. 125(12):981-8, 2005
Luo Q. et al. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects and antioxidant activity of fruit extracts from Lycium barbarum. Life Sciences. 76(2):137-49, 2004